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These national zones do not extend into international waters.

At the equinoxes, the first place to see daylight would be the uninhabited Millennium Island in Kiribati, which is the easternmost land located west of the IDL.

Near the December solstice, the first places would be Antarctic research stations using New Zealand Time (UTC 13) during summer that experience midnight sun.

These include portions of the Republic of Kiribati, including Millennium Island in the Line Islands, as well as Samoa during the southern summer.

The first major cities to experience a new day are Auckland and Wellington, New Zealand (UTC 12; UTC 13 with daylight saving time).

The IDL must therefore be observed in conjunction with the Earth's time zones: on crossing it in either direction, the calendar date is adjusted by one day.

For the two hours between and UTC each day, three different calendar dates are observed at the same time in different places on Earth.

All nations unilaterally determine their standard time zones, applicable only on land and adjacent territorial waters.

This date line can be called de facto since it is not based on international law, but on national laws.

During the second hour (UTC –) one of the calendar dates is limited to an uninhabited maritime time zone twelve hours behind UTC (UTC−12).

According to the clock, the first areas to experience a new day and a New Year are islands that use UTC 14.

Night and day is illustrative only; daylight hours depend on latitude and time of year.) The IDL is roughly based on the meridian of 180° longitude, roughly down the middle of the Pacific Ocean, and halfway around the world from the Greenwich meridian.

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