Clay crustal dating environment in isotope tracing

Concentrations of lead and stable lead isotope ratios , most often located at the bottom of the profiles (160, 200, and 220 cm in depth).

The various peaks recorded in the soils and the position of the profiles suggest that various contaminants were transported by the river on several occasions and infiltrated the soil matrix or deposited on floodplains during successive floods.

Dynamics of orogenic cycles: combining geochronology, metamorphic petrology and structural geology; timing and duration of geological processes at different scales.

clay crustal dating environment in isotope tracing-11

Mining and industrial activity have introduced various forms of lead pollutants into the environment and the intensive use of fossil fuels has also resulted in lead and several other heavy metals affecting the environment to varying degrees [4, 5].

In the past two decades, research has examined lead isotope signatures to trace emission sources and assessed spatial and temporal changes of recent lead pollution originating from lead smelters and manufacturing plants and from the use of alkyllead in petroleum products, particularly before 1990 [6, 7].

Lead isotope analysis has proved to be an effective technique for identifying the origin of lead in different terrestrial, marine and aquatic ecosystems [1, 12, 13].

Also, the isotopic composition of lead is not affected to any measurable extent by physical or chemical processes [6].

These ages define multi-episode illitization during early diagenesis, as suggested by the different Sm/Nd ratios of the clay fractions.

The Sm-Nd isotope data of the kerogen source rock (up to 13% organic carbon) plot between the two isochrons but close to the clay fractions, suggesting that this organic matter reached Nd isotopic equilibrium with respect to the clay minerals and the diagenetic fluids.

diffusion, viscosity, electrical and thermal conductivity); phase stability, structure, vibrational and elastic properties of silicates and other crystalline phases as function of P and T; structure and diffusion in mineral grain boundaries and partially molten rocks, melting and crystallization processes; mechanisms of crystal deformation and structural phase transitions; development of predictive molecular simulation methods and their application to mineralogy and geochemistry Crystal chemistry and crystal physics, especially Fe in minerals and OH in nominally anhydrous minerals; diamond-anvil cell, high-pressure experimentation, multi-anvil press, piston-cylinder apparatus, thermodynamics of solid solutions, vibrational spectroscopies (UV-VIS, FTIR, Raman, ambient conditions as well as function of P and T) X-ray diffraction (XRD), simulation of XRD patterns, interstratification, structure defects, order-disorder, lamellar structures, clays, phyllosilicates, phyllomanganates, oxyhydroxides, biomineralizations, environment, contaminated soils (heavy metal speciation), mineral surface reactivity, waste storage Igneous petrology, Magmatic processes and textures (partial melting; melt extraction; magma ascent; syn-eruptive processes; interfacial energies, surface tensions and capillary phenomena), Volatiles in magmas (solubility; magma degassing; bubble nucleation and growth), Mantle petrology (partial melting of peridotites and pyroxenites; basalt genesis; magma-rock interactions; melt infiltration), Experimental techniques (piston-cylinder, externally and internally heated pressure vessels) Sulfide mineralogy, ore deposits; applied mineralogy (especially environmental aspects) Clay mineralogy (paleoenvironments and basin analysis); sedimentary mineralogy; marine geochemistry; sedimentary geochemistry; biomineralization; paleooceanography Geobiology, Biomineralization/Biocarbonation, Carbon capture and Storage, Deep biosphere/deep life, Microimaging, Scanning/Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray imaging, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy, Vibrational spectroscopy (Raman, FTIR), Environmental Microbiology High precision geochronology (U-Pb).

Early planetary and solar system evolution; Earth differentiation.

The atmosphere is recognized as major means of transport [8], but fluvial transport also constitutes a vector of pollution [9–11].

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